Oil Painting - Fat Over Lean
By Rob Pitts
'Fat over lean' refers to the principle of applying 'fat' oil paint, which has a higher oil to pigment ratio, over 'lean' oil paint, which has a lower oil to pigment ratio, in order to ensure a stable paint film. The idea is to prevent upper layers of oil paint from drying faster than lower layers, which can lead to an oil painting cracking.
Oil paint straight out of the tube is considered 'fat'. Adding more oil, such as linseed oil, will make it even 'fatter', further increasing the drying time. Even when it feels dry to the touch, it may still be drying under the surface.
'Lean' paint, on the other hand, is oil paint mixed with turpentine or some other fast-drying medium. 'Lean' oil paint dries faster than 'fat' oil paint.
The key thing to remember, in order to avoid cracking, is that every layer in an oil painting must be 'fatter' than the one beneath it. That is because if 'lean' oil paint is painted over 'fat' oil paint, the 'lean' layer could be subject to cracking as the 'fat' layer dries and contracts underneath it. Also, lower layers tend to absorb oil from the layers above them, especially when 'fat over lean' is not followed.
Another thing to consider is the quality of the oil paints you are using. Cheaper oil paints often have drying agents added, making the drying times more consistent.
Conversely, quality oil paints generally consist of oil and pigment only, leading to varying drying times. For example, Prussian blue, titanium white, and flake white all have a lower oil content and dry more quickly. However, cadmium yellow and cadmium red, both of which have a medium oil content, usually take about five days to dry.
According to some oil paint manufacturers, it is possible to circumvent the 'fat over lean' principle by using synthetic, alkyd-based mediums like Galkyd and Liquin. However, while these products do provide consistent drying times, increase the paint film flexibility, and promote adhesion between paint layers, their long-term stability is not known at this time.
If you would like to learn more, please visit me at http://www.oilandpigment.blogspot.com where I discuss my own paintings and works in progress.
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Oil Painting - Tips on Glazing
By Rob Pitts
Traditional oil paintings often began with a grisaille, which is a monochromatic version of the finished piece. When this dried, the painter began to add layers of glaze in different colors, allowing each layer to dry before adding the next one. This method, favored by Vermeer, afforded the painter more control over the development of the painting, while creating a luminescent, translucent surface. With even more glazing, the artist could further darken sections of the canvas, such as a figure or background, making them appear to recede.
Another time-tested method of the Old Masters involved using glazes over opaque colors. The under-glow of light coming through transparent glazes allowed for the creation of many special effects. Rembrandt, for example, was able to create remarkable three-dimensionality in his paintings through the use of glazing. His glazes, which he applied then wiped off while they were still wet, are clearly evident in the nooks and crannies of his paintings
Glazing, to put it simply, is the application of a transparent layer of paint over an opaque layer of paint which has been allowed to dry thoroughly. It can be compared to laying a sheet of colored acetate, or gel, over a photograph. However, while it sounds easy enough, glazing can be challenging at times.
First, you have to dilute the paint used for glazing with just the right amount of oil, or medium. Then, you have to figure out exactly how thin the glaze should be. Applying an overly thick layer could change the color or shade to an unwanted degree, forcing you to wipe it off. Too much paint added to the medium will also lessen the transparency of the glaze, depending on your color choices.
The secret to glazing, I personally discovered the hard way, is patience. You need to build your colors and tones slowly. In fact, with glazing, there really is no other way to do it. The paint must be kept extremely thin, even though you may think it is so thin that it is not doing anything. The first or second layer, or maybe even the third, may appear that way, but the key is to keep building the layers until you start to see a difference.
Like I said, I learned the hard way. I wanted to see immediate results, which caused me to constantly lay my glazes on too thick, or add too much paint to the medium. It wasn't until I forced myself to be patient that I began to get the results that I was looking for. That required using extremely thin and seemingly ineffective glazes, often as many as ten or twenty. But, in the end, I got it right. And so will you.
If you would like to learn more, please visit me at http://www.oilandpigment.blogspot.com for a look at my own paintings and works in progress.
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Oil Painting Techniques - The Many Ways to Apply Oil Paint
By Ralph Serpe
Oil paint is one of the most versatile and adaptable painting mediums in existence today. There are many techniques and effects possible with oil paint. Oil paint can be applied in thin transparent glazes or washes, or the paint can be mixed to a thick buttery consistency and applied using a painting knife. There really appears to be no end to the wonderful ways you can create art with this amazing painting medium. This article will talk about some of the many ways you can use oil paint.
The dry brush technique involves using a small amount of oil paint straight from the tube. It is then brushed thinly onto your support with a bristle brush. This technique works particularly well with a rough surface. The raised parts of your surface pick up the paint, while the dips or valleys in your support do not. This creates a broken color effect where the color of your canvas shows through.
Painting On A Toned Ground
The white of a canvas can sometimes be too bright or have too much contrast which makes starting a painting a bit difficult. When you cover your support with a uniform toned ground, it makes it much easier to judge the values in your painting. You can use any color you like to tone your ground really, but the more popular approach is to use warm tones of red, yellows and browns, which provide a wonderful richness to the finished work.
Here is an example of how to paint on a toned ground using Burnt Umber and Yellow Ochre. First you create the wash by mixing the Burnt Umber and Yellow Ochre together with a paint thinner (use turpentine, or if you are like me, and are allergic to turpentine, use a water soluble oil paint). Apply the mixture generously to your support and completely cover it with a large bristle brush. Let this mixture stand for a couple of minutes and then wipe off the excess wash with a cloth.
Alla Prima Painting
Alla Prima painting, also known as "direct painting", is a technique of oil painting where the work is usually finished in just one sitting. You are probably familiar with the artist Bob Ross, who made this painting method quite popular on his TV Show. I am sure like me, you watched Bob paint in amazement as he completed a beautiful painting in under 30 mintues.
The paint is applied wet onto wet directly onto the canvas usually with no underpainting or sketches. It might be a good idea in the beginning to lay down a sketch with some thinned down oil paint. This way you will have a general idea where your colors will be placed. You must be careful using this technique as your painting can become quite muddy if you do not apply the colors correctly on your canvas. It takes practice, so don't be discouraged if your first, second or even third painting does not come out the way you anticipated. Keep practicing and let your imagination run wild. As Bob used to say, "It's Your World".
Working With Painting Knives
If you have never worked with painting knives, then it is highly recommended that you give them a try. This type of painting method is very different from traditional brush painting and when you lay down your first stroke of paint with a painting knife, you will immediately see why. Painting with a knife can be best described as spreading butter on a piece of bread and you should keep your painting at a butter or cream like consistency when using painting knives. Do not use your palette knives to paint with. They have a different construction and are not made for painting. Painting knives have more flexibility to them and come in a variety of different shapes and sizes. You can manipulate paint in a variety of different ways with a knife just by changing your hand position on the handle. You can hold your hand down low on the handle to smear the paint over your support. Move your hand up to the top of the handle and you can use your finger to gently push the blade into the paint to create small dabs of color. You can also turn your knife blade on its side for scraping away paint or for creating hard lines.
If you never produced a painting using the glazing technique, then you should definitely give this a try as well. Your painting will have a different appearance then if you were to complete a painting using traditional color mixing techniques. Glazing tends to give colors more luminescence. The colors are not mixed together first before applying, rather, they are mixed optically using single transparent layers of color. For instance, if you wanted to create the color green using glazes, you would not mix yellow and blue together on your palette first. You would first apply a thin glaze of blue, wait until it dries, then apply a thin glaze of yellow, which would then create your green. Each layer must be completely dry before applying subsequent layers. Usually, the first step in using the glazing technique is to create a monochromatic (different values of the same color) underpainting of the subject. Using only one color will help you to focus on form and tone first, rather than being too preoccupied with color at this stage. Wait until your under painting is dry to begin applying your first layer of color. This technique is tricky and does require practice, but it is not as difficult as some may lead you to believe.
For more oil painting lessons and techniques be sure to visit Creative Spotlite today, a free online community for artists and crafters. It is also recommended that you visit the Creative Spotlite Art Instruction Blog, where you will find more painting lessons including step by step painting videos.
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